Gaius Julius Caesar
(Classical Latin: July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general
and a distinguished writer of Latin
prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic
into the Roman Empire
In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus
formed a political alliance
that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist
tactics were opposed by the conservative elite
within the Roman Senate
, among them Cato the Younger
with the frequent support of Cicero
. Caesar's conquest of Gaul
, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel
and the Rhine
. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine
and conducted the first invasion of Britain
These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus
in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon
with a legion
to march on Rome. Civil war
resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar
. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator
in perpetuity". But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March
(15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus
. A new series of civil wars
broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic
was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir, later known as Augustus
, rose to sole power, and the era of the Roman Empire
Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust
. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius
are also major sources.
Early life and career
Caesar was born into a patrician
family, the gens Julia
, which claimed descent from Iulus
, son of the legendary Trojan
, supposedly the son of the goddess Venus
. The cognomen
"Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder
, with an ancestor who was born by caesarean section
(from the Latin verb to cut, caedere
).The Historia Augusta
suggests three alternative explanations
: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair (Latin caesaries
); that he had bright grey eyes (Latin oculis caesiis
); or that he killed an elephant (caesai
in Moorish) in battle.
Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name. Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential. Caesar's father, also called Gaius Julius Caesar
, governed the province of Asia
, while his mother, Aurelia Cotta
, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesar's childhood.[
Caesar's formative years were a time of turmoil and "savage bloodshed".There were several wars from 91 BC to 82 BC, although from 82 BC to 80 BC, the dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla
was purging Rome of his political enemies. Domestically, Roman politics was bitterly divided.
In 85 BC, Caesar's father died suddenly[ so at sixteen Caesar was the head of the family. The following year he was nominated to be the new high priest of Jupiter
100 ق. م. – 44 ق. م.
Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
As a politician, Caesar made use of popularist tactics. During the late 60s and into the 50s BC, he formed political alliances that led to the so-called "First Triumvirate," an extra-legal arrangement with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great") that was to dominate Roman politics for several years.
Much of Caesar's life is known from his own Commentaries (Commentarii) on his military campaigns, and other contemporary sources such as the letters and speeches of his political rival Cicero, the historical writings of Sallust, and the poetry of Catullus. Many more details of his life are recorded by later historians, such as Appian, Suetonius, Plutarch, Cassius Dio and Strabo.
Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not
In 85 BC Caesar's father died suddenly while putting on his shoes one morning, without any apparent cause, and at sixteen, Caesar was the head of the family.
He became known for his exceptional oratory, accompanied by impassioned gestures and a high-pitched voice, and ruthless prosecution of former governors notorious for extortion and corruption. Even Cicero praised him: "Come now, what orator would you rank above him...?" Aiming at rhetorical perfection, Caesar travelled to Rhodes in 75 BC to study under Apollonius Molon, who had previously taught Cicero.
On the way across the Aegean Sea, Caesar was kidnapped by Cilician (not to be confused with Sicilian) pirates and held prisoner in the Dodecanese islet of Pharmacusa.
He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity. When the pirates thought to demand a ransom of twenty talents of silver, he insisted they ask for fifty. After the ransom was paid, Caesar raised a fleet, pursued and captured the pirates, and imprisoned them in Pergamon. Marcus Junctus, the governor of Asia, refused to execute them as Caesar demanded, preferring to sell them as slaves, but Caesar returned to the coast and had them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised to when in captivity—a promise the pirates had taken as a joke. As a sign of leniency, he first had their throats cut. He then proceeded to Rhodes, but was soon called back into military action in Asia, raising a band of auxiliaries to repel an incursion from Pontus. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Caesar
However, Caesar was not like other Romans. Already at a young age he had realized that money was the key to Roman politics as the system had by his time long been corrupt.
When, Caesar was fifteen years old, his father Lucius died, with him died the fatherly expectations that Caesar should engage on a modest political career. Instead Caesar now set out to better himself.
Writing in the first quarter of the second century CE, the Roman author Suetonius still knew many of Caesar's publications, such as a book On analogy and a collection of speeches In reply to Cato. A poem The voyage described Caesar's journey from Rome to Hispania, when he was governor of Andalusia. These works are unknown to us, because the medieval monks who copied all the ancient manuscripts considered them unimportant. In Suetonius' days, other publications were already lost: a tragedy Oedipus, a collection of apophtegms and a poem or speech In praise of Hercules.
- يتم الاب في سن 15
- لا يوجد معلومات عن الام وهناك احتمال ان يكون يتم الام ايضا كونه شاعر وكاتب اضافة الى كونه قائد فهناك تأثير مزدوج يتم في الطفولة المبكرة ويتم في سن 15 .
- من الملاحظ ان هتلر ولينين وستالين ونابليون وقيصر وماتست يونع متشابهين في عنفهم وهم على ما يبدو متشابهين في يتمهم حيث مات الاب في سنوات ما بين 14 عند هتلر و15 عند يولويس و16 عند نابليون.
مات ابوه وعمره 15 سنة.
يتيم الاب وهو في سن الـ 15.